Posted by: mjaga | July 20, 2012

What is Ar-Riba? – 2

Some days back another post with the same title was published. Therein I had given a link to Chapter 1 of the book ISLAM AND INTEREST. But it appears hardly anyone bothered to click the link.

I believe the subject matter is too important to be so neglected. Understanding the Qur’aanic Concept of Ar-Riba is vital to understanding the basic Principles of Islamic Economics. It is the duty of every Muslim worth the name to have this understanding.

I am therefore pasting the said Chapter 1 herein below. It is my earnest request to all to study it sincerely and carefully. Understanding the subject matter, I repeat, is vital to understanding the basic principles of Islamic economics.

I am open to discussion. Let us discuss the matter threadbare. I am sure Allah Almighty shall open to us His concept of the term. Please keep your comments short, to the point, and relevant  to what I have stated in the Chapter pasted below. This is absolutely necessary for a meaningful discussion.

CHAPTER 1

WHAT IS AR-RIBA?

 

1.1 In the 39th verse of the 30th Chapter of the Qur’aan [Q: 30.39], it is stated, “And when you give out anything for profit (minriban) in a way that the gain is effected by taking the rightful properties, earnings or dues of others (fee amwaalinnasi), then that is not a gain at all (fala yarbu) with Allah. And the real gainers are those who give out in charity (min zakatin), thereby seeking Allah’s pleasure.”

1.1.1 The verse was the first in the Qur’aan, in order of its revelation, to discuss the subject of Ar-RibaRiba or Riban, in Arabic, literally means ‘gain’, ‘increase’ or ‘growth’. Its verb form is rubuww, which in turn means ‘to increase’ or ‘to grow’.

1.1.2 Obviously, it is not every gain, profit or increase that is despised by Allah in this verse. It is only a particular kind of it that is despised – the kind that is effected fee amwaalinnasi (i.e. in people’s amwaal).

1.1.3 People’s amwaal are their own rightful possessions. The term includes their rightful earnings, which they have not yet come in possession of: the salary rightfully earned by an employee, for example, which the employer has not yet paid. The term also includes other rightful dues, as for instance, anything given by one person from his own rightful possessions to another for temporary use of it by the latter or for safe custody.

1.1.4 It is thus clear, from the first part of the verse, that what Allah disapproves of is one particular kind of gain, and not all gains. That particular kind is the one that is effected by taking the amwaal – not  one’s own but – of others. Allah abhors such gains obviously because of the injustice involved in those. The gainers in such cases do, as a matter of fact, usurp what should rightfully belong to others.

1.1.5 The particular kind of Riba (gain) that Allah abhors is further explained in the same verse by contrasting it with Zakat (charity). When you give something in Zakat, you give something of your own amwaal to others without expecting anything in return from the recipients. In the said kind of Riba, on the other hand, you would be usurping something of others’ amwaal, in addition to getting your own back.

1.1.6 In this verse, thus, Allah unequivocally defines the kind of Riba that He abhors. It is the gain that any party to a transaction contrives or manipulates to get by usurping the rightful dues, earnings or possessions of others. In verses subsequently revealed on the subject matter, this particular kind ofRiba has been referred to as Ar-Riba. In this term, Riba is prefixed with the Arabic definite article Al, which is equivalent to the English ‘the’, but the term is pronounced asAr-Riba. The Al prefixed to Riba in all the subsequently revealed verses unmistakably indicates the kind of Riba described in this verse, viz., Q: 30.39.

1.1.7 Contrary to the general belief, therefore, Ar-Riba stands very well defined in the Qur’aan. Not only is it well defined, but is further variously explained in other verses, as we shall presently see, to make us understand the term properly. It is to be noted that in verse, Q: 30.39, Ar-Riba has been described and condemned but not prohibited.

1.2 In accordance with a rule followed in the Qur’aan in taking gradual steps for eradication of an evil practice, Ar-Riba, condemned in the verse quoted above, was subjected to restrictions in the next verse revealed thereon. The next verse, viz. Q: 3.130, states: “O believers, do not devourAr-Riba at doubled and redoubled rates. And be conscious of Allah for your own good.”

1.2.1 As may be seen, taking of exorbitantAr-Riba was prohibited in this verse, but it was still not a total prohibition. It was so done perhaps not to create a sudden void in the general economy of that time. Instead, stress was laid on piety and self-restraint.

1.2.2 What is to be noted, however, is that the kind of Riba that was defined in the earlier verse, Q: 30.39, came to be referred to as Ar-Riba from this verse [Q: 3.130].

1.3 The next verse revealed on the subject matter is Q: 4.161. It states, “And they tookAr-Riba though they were forbidden to do so and devoured people’s amwaalwrongfully. And We have prepared a painful suffering for those who cover the Truth (i.e. who are nonbelievers) among them.”

1.3.1 The pronoun ‘they’ in this verse stands for the Jews. Ar-Riba had been prohibited to them. Allah informs Muslims about this to prepare them for the prohibition that would soon be coming on them (the Muslims) too.

1.3.2 The Muslims are thus warned in advance of the consequences of disobeying the injunction.

1.3.3 They are also hereby given a further explanation or elaboration of the Qur’aanic meaning of Ar-Riba. They are informed that the term applies to wrongful acquisition (usurpation) of other people’s amwaal.

1.4 We now come to the group of verses with which Allah completed His instructions on Ar-Riba. These verses were among the last ones of the Qur’aan in order of its revelation.

1.5 The first verse in the said group is Q: 2.275. It states, “Those who devour Ar-Riba do not stand but as one on whom the Satan has cast his spell by touch. This is so because they insist that business (bai’a) is like Ar-Riba. And Allah has permitted business and prohibited Ar-Riba. So then, one, who desists, after receiving admonition from one’s Lord, shall retain one’s past gains and that one’s case shall be left to Allah for decision. And the ones who persist shall be those who would inhabit the Fire, therein to abide.”

1.5.1 It is in this verse of the Qur’aan that Allah finally and totally prohibits Ar-Riba. At the same time, He declares bai’a, i.e. business (wherein commodities or services are traded for reasonable profit), to be a permitted activity.

1.5.2 A very significant feature of this verse is that it has pointedly referred to the misinterpretation that the term, Ar-Riba, is subjected to at the hands of some people. These people do so under satanic influence. Under this deceitful influence, they liken business to Ar-Riba.

1.5.3 I have no knowledge of such people so misinterpreting Ar-Riba at the time the Qur’aan was revealed. But I am aware of such people in my age. They condemn one of such businesses, which Allah has permitted, as Ar-Riba. They do not mind, however, themselves devouring other people’s amwaal!

1.5.4 They do so in various subtle ways. Some evade taxes due to Government and other statutory institutions. Some, engaged as traders, take advantage of a situation of scarcity to enhance their profit margins substantially. Employers underpay their employees. Employees shirk their work but receive their full salaries. Taxi-drivers demand money, more than the metre-readings, on some pretext or the other.

1.5.5 Such ways are a legend and can be found in every field of activity. Among the perpetrators, unfortunately, are even some who are considered to be very religious. They have a holier-than-thou attitude, but are blissfully unaware that they are themselves guilty of taking Ar-Riba.

1.5.6 And such are the people described as being under the satanic spell in the verse.

1.5.7 Allah then declares in the verse a general amnesty to those who desist fromAr-Riba. Although such people retain their gains due to past Ar-Riba dealings, their fates in the Hereafter are left to Allah’s decision. The decision perhaps would depend on their future behaviour.

1.5.8 But as for those who persist in Ar-Riba, their fates in the Hereafter are sealed. They will go to Hell.

1.6 The next verse, Q: 2.276, declares, “Allah annihilates Ar-Riba and renders fulfilling of obligations to the poor and needy, fruitful. And Allah loves not any sinful suppressors of Truth (non-believers).”

1.6.1 This verse gives further expression to Allah’s utter displeasure against perpetrators of Ar-Riba. At the micro level, the displeasure may not immediately be discernible in cases of individuals. A person indulging in Ar-Riba may continue for some time to appear prosperous. Allah gives him/her a long rope. The person may even be seen departing from this world still apparently prosperous. Allah’s warning is basically for the other world. Life in this world is after all infinitesimally small compared to the interminable life in the other. Still, Allah makes examples of some such persons in this very world and annihilates their ill-gotten wealth. For others to take heed.

1.6.2 At the macro level of communities or nations, however, Allah’s displeasure at Ar-Riba dealings is very much discernible. Nations and communities wherein corruption is rampant have their economies in doldrums. Economic corruption is nothing but Ar-Riba. No nation is absolutely free from corruption. But nations, which are less prone to this malady, are the ones that have better economies even when such nations may not be endowed much with natural resources.

1.6.3 Ar-Riba has been contrasted in this verse with Sadaqaat. The latter Arabic term is used for payment of moral dues to the deserving, including the poor and needy. The Qur’aan says elsewhere, [Q: 9.60], that Allah has made Sadaqaat obligatory. This indicates that Ar-Riba dealings involve non-fulfilment of moral obligations in human transactions. A little reflection will show that Allah has here elaborated the meaning of Ar-Riba, which had already been defined previously in verse Q: 30.39.

1.7 Now we come to the last two (in order of revelation) verses specifically regardingAr-Riba. These are taken together here, as these are closely inter-linked: “O believers! Fear Allah and give up what remains of Ar-Riba, if you do really believe. And if you do not do so (i.e. give up Ar-Riba), then be warned that you are in a state of war with Allah and His Messenger. And if you repent, then you are entitled to get back your capital dues. You shall wrong not, nor shall you be wronged.” [Q: 2.278 & 279]

1.7.1 These verses too are very important in understanding the Qur’aanic concept of Ar-Riba. In the first of these two verses, Allah Almighty once again stresses the enormity of the crime of Ar-Riba. It is a crime against humanity. It is the perpetrator of economic injustices and disorders in this world. It is one of the primary causes of all the troubles here. It leads humanity away from the straight path Allah has laid down for it. That is why He declares that those who indulge inAr-Riba are at war with Him and His Messenger.

1.7.2 Then, in the second of the two verses, Allah declares that those who desist from taking Ar-Riba have the right to take back their capital dues. The actual Arabic word used for dues is amwaal. We have seen what amwaal generally means in 1.1.3 above. But one important aspect of this word needs to be stressed here in order to understand Ar-Riba properly.

1.7.3 And in order to understand this aspect, it should first be clearly understood that money is not amwaal per se. Money is only the current value of amwaalAmwaal of the same quantity and quality may have different values at different points of time. If one kilogram of sugar of a certain quality costs 16 units of money now, it might have cost only 8 units 10 years ago. If one hour of labour now costs 20 units of money, it might have cost, say, 9 units only, 10 years ago. Thus, while amwaal (sugar and labour, in the examples given here) remain the same, their value in terms of money may change.

1.7.4 Now it should carefully be noted that Allah, in His all-encompassing wisdom, has always referred to Ar-Riba in terms ofamwaal and not in terms of their value, i.e. money. In the verses presently under discussion too, He tells us that we are entitled to get back our capital amwaal (and not sums, as some have erroneously translated the word). Let us consider, more elaborately, what this means.

1.7.5 Suppose I am quite rich (although, in fact, I am not). And I have a friend, who is also quite rich. But, two years back, my friend was in financial difficulties and then he needed a car very badly. I had then just bought a car of X brand and Y model. I gave it to the friend, and bought another for me. Now, two years after that event, my friend has got over his financial difficulties and wants to pay back the loan.

1.7.6 How can he do that? He cannot just hand over to me the car he has been using for two years. If he does that, I am wronged, and Allah says, in the verse under discussion, that I should not be wronged. I would not be wronged in this case only if I now need another car and my friend gives me a brand new car of the same X brand and Y model. That too if, as a friendly gesture, I do not ask for any compensation from my friend, for his two-year use of my car.

1.7.7 But what if I do not want now to have that type of car and want to have the costlier Z model? I cannot ask my friend to give me the Z model; for, if I do so my friend would be wronged and I would (Allah forbid) be going against Allah’s express command in the verse under discussion. Therefore, the only right course for my friend to adopt would be to give me the present market price of a new car of the X brand and Y model. He should do so even if the price of the said car had appreciated by a few thousand units of money during the two-year period. Then only would neither party be wronged.

1.7.8 On the same analogy, had my friend taken from me the cost, say a quarter million units of money, of the car then and not the car itself, he should pay me now the quarter million plus the few thousands by which the price has appreciated. And had my friend taken the money, not for buying a car, but for meeting some urgent domestic need of his, he has now to pay me the present equivalent of the amount calculated as per the consumer price index. If the index has increased by 10%, the amount to be returned by my friend has also to be increased by the same percentage.

1.7.9 Money, as a matter of fact, is not a material thing. It is a power – a power to purchase material things or services. When I gave my friend the said amount two years back, I gave him a certain purchasing power. That purchasing power, and not the amount as such, constituted the amwaal of Qur’aanic terminology in this case. My friend has to return that principal amwaali.e. that principal purchasing power. If he returns to me only the same amount he would be returning less than my principalamwaal. I would be wronged then and the divine commandment would be vitiated.

1.7.10 And had my friend taken the money for investment in a new commercial venture of his, the parameter for the return of the loan would change. He would have now to pay me not only the present value of the purchasing power he had taken from me, but also in addition the proportionate share in the profit the venture might have earned during the period. It would be wrong and unjust on the part of my friend if he does not give me this share; for, without the loan I had given him, the commercial venture could not have been brought to fruition. Profits are theamwaal earned in the venture. These profits were the result brought about by three factors:

a.     Capital invested by my friend himself,

b.    Loan I had given, and,

c.     Services put in by my friend.

Every one of these three factors shall have a rightful proportionate share in the profits. The three shares of the three factors are therefore their respective rightfully earnedamwaal. If my friend does not give me the share due to factor b, it would be tantamount to his seeking increase in his wealth by usurping my amwaal – a clear case of Ar-Riba in terms of verse Q: 30.39.

1.7.11 It may be noted here that when I gave the loan to my friend, I provided him with a thing he needed. It was just like the grocer providing groceries for my family’s needs or a builder constructing office premises for me for running my business. Both the grocer and the builder take from me their service charges in addition to the costs to them of the things they give me. That is the general basis on which all human transactions are effected. Such service charges are never subject to the use or misuse, productive or unproductive, to which the things supplied are put to by the recipients. As for example, the builder does not base his service charges on the success or failure of the business I conduct through the office he built for me. Neither would the grocer repay me his profit margin on the eggs that I bought from him but broke, falling accidentally down from my hand on my way home.

1.7.12 Such service charges or profits, or whatever you call them, are worked out, as a norm, at predetermined fixed rates. Nothing wrong in this from the Islamic point of view. Reasonable service charges are the rightful amwaal of the service providers, and these have to be necessarily at fixed rates depending on the efforts put in and time consumed in providing the services. These charges are also subject, of course, to the open market forces.

1.7.13 There is no reason therefore why I should have necessarily subjected the returns on my loan, given to my friend two years back, on the success or failure of his venture. Unless, of course, we had both agreed to be partners in the venture. Since we had not, I had the right to claim compensation for the deprival to me for two years of the equivalent purchasing power then. I could have utilised the loan amount for purchasing things for my own business and earned profits thereon during that period. I could therefore justifiably claim the compensation at a reasonable pre-determined fixed rate (say, the rate at which I earned my profits on my investments two years back), just as the grocer and the builder do in claiming their service charges or profits.

1.7.14 That Islam (as propounded basically in the Qur’aan) does not permit recovery of service charge or any compensation (even if it be called as interest) at fixed rates, is a myth. What Islam requires is that such rates should be justifiable and reasonable and determined on the principle that neither the service provider nor the service recipient should be wronged. It is another matter that in the present example, I may not ask for any compensation out of consideration for a friend, but I do have the right.

1.8 The Qur’aan does not deny anyone his/her due rights. But it strongly advises all human beings to be humane too while claiming their due rights. Let us now consider this divine advice as a fitting finale to this Chapter discussing the Qur’aanic verses on Ar-Riba.

1.8.1 In verse Q: 2.280, which immediately follows the Ar-Riba verses mentioned above, Allah says, “And if he (the recipient of services) be in difficulties, then grant him time till it is easy for him to discharge his liabilities. And if you remit your dues in deserving cases, it would be for your good, if you but knew.”

1.8.2 Remittance of one’s dues in deserving cases is termed as Sadaqah or one’s moral obligation in the verse. To understand the obligation, let me extend the case, mentioned herein above, of my giving a loan to my friend. If I find that the friend continues to be in financial difficulties, I have to grant him further necessary extensions for making the repayment. And, suppose, my financial condition continues to be rosy, while his deteriorates to the extent that he would not be able to repay the loan in the foreseeable future. Then, in view of this Qur’aanic verse, it would be my moral obligation to remit the loan. As a true Muslim, I should have the innate faith in me that Almighty Allah shall make this Sadaqah fruitful for me as promised by Him in verse Q: 2.276.

1.9 I believe that a dispassionate, unprejudiced, sincere and meticulous study of the verses quoted above shall reveal to an ardent student of the Qur’aan that the divine injunction on Ar-Riba is

a)    aimed at eliminating injustices in all human transactions,

b)    well-defined and well-explained in the Qur’aan itself,

c)    a commandment, the violation of which is very, very seriously viewed by Allah – to such an extent that He has declared a war on the violators and has promised them the Hell,

d)    however, grossly misunderstood by equating Ar-Riba to ‘interest’ as such, and,

therefore widely violated by Muslims themselves, thus inviting Allah’s ire on them, which is very much reflected in the pathetic present-day status and condition of their community, generally, the world over.

Posted by: mjaga | July 14, 2012

Deeply Dangerous

Prophet Muhammad’s Biography

Khushwant Singh, the grand old man of Indian journalism, is an agnostic. He is now in his late nineties, but still writes a weekly column in newspapers. He had recently written a review of the book ‘Muhammad, Prophet for Our Time’ by Karen Armstrong. It was a flattering review.

An agnostic was praising a religious leader! I was completely bowled over. I bought and read the book.

Author Karen is a non-Muslim. She does convey the obvious message that, despite tremendous odds against him, Muhammad managed to bring about a great revolution among the nondescript, largely illiterate people of Arabia. But, as I said, she is not a believer in Muhammad being a genuine, divinely ordained Prophet. And her disbelief oozes out unmistakably throughout her Book!

Reading such a book is more dangerous for a believer than reading a book that openly professes itself to be against Islam. The believer shall shun the latter, but the former shall surreptitiously and subtly attack his belief unless safely and securely anchored.

Karen’s book is therefore deeply dangerous.

Mohammad Shafi

Posted by: mjaga | July 11, 2012

Prophet Muhammad – an Excellent Example

Qur’aanic Verse 33:21:

33:21

Transliteration:

21. Laqad kana lakum fee rasooli Allahi oswatun hasanatun liman kana yarjoo Allaha waalyawma al-akhira wathakara Allaha katheeran

Translation:

21. Certainly you have in the Messenger of Allah an excellent example for anyone who turns to Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah much. 4

Study Note:

4. Divine qualification thus of Prophet Muhammad (peace on him) has been sorely misconstrued by a great number of Muslims today. Such Muslims go to the ridiculous extent of doing exactly as the Prophet allegedly did in his personal life in mundane matters like how he ate, wore his clothes, slept, or even answered calls of nature. I know of people now who would like to take their meals squatting on the floor because the Prophet had done so. The Imams would not use mikes while leading prayers in masjids because the Prophet had not used them. To learn what the Prophet did in his day-to-day life, they resort not to the Qur’aan, but to the man-influenced and error-prone ahaadeeth. Had they followed the Qur’aan sincerely, they would have realized that what Allah Ta’ala meant by this Verse is that the Prophet meticulously followed what the Qur’aan stipulated, and that the believers should try to emulate him in this regard and not in regard to what he otherwise did in his personal life. Chapter 103 of the Qur’aan stipulates that a human being ought to believe, do righteous deeds, exhort others to live by the truth, and exhort others with patience. This is exactly what our beloved Prophet did in his illustrious life. Allah Ta’ala urges the believers in the Verse above to emulate him in this.


 The above is an extract from Qur’aanic Studies Manzil V, which will soon, inshaAllah, be published on Amazon Kindle. Manzil IMabzil II,  Manzil III and Manzil IV of the series are already published.

Mohammad Shafi

Posted by: mjaga | July 6, 2012

Delusion of Human Control

Qur’aanic Verse 32:5:

32:5

Transliteration:

5. Yudabbiru al-amra mina alssama-i ila al-ardi thumma yaAAruju ilayhi fee yawmin kana miqdaruhu alfa sanatin mimma taAAuddoona

Translation:

5. He (Allah) directs the Divine Command from the heavens to the earth. Then it will come up to Him on a day the measure of which is a thousand years as you count.3

Study Note:

3. My understanding of this Verse is that it is Allah Ta’ala Who in fact, behind the scenes, controls all affairs on this earth although apparently the affairs are under mankind’s control. But on the Day of Resurrection the delusion of human control will vanish, and the de facto Divine Control will be very much apparent.


 The above is an extract from Qur’aanic Studies Manzil V, which will soon, inshaAllah, be published on Amazon Kindle. Manzil IMabzil II,  Manzil III and Manzil IV of the series are already published.

Mohammad Shafi

Posted by: mjaga | July 2, 2012

Walk not the Streets in Pride

Qur’aanic Verse 31:18:

31:18

Transliteration:

18. Wala tusaAAAAir khaddaka lilnnasi wala tamshi fee al-ardi marahan inna Allaha la yuhibbu kulla mukhtalin fakhoorin

Translation:

18. “And turn not rudely away from people, nor walk the streets in pride! Indeed, Allah loves not any self-conceited boaster.”


 The above is an extract from Qur’aanic Studies Manzil V, which will soon, inshaAllah, be published on Amazon Kindle. Manzil IMabzil II,  Manzil III and Manzil IV of the series are already published.

Mohammad Shafi

Posted by: mjaga | June 27, 2012

Frivolous Hadeeth

Qur’aanic Verse 31:6:

31:6

Transliteration:

6. Wamina alnnasi man yashtaree lahwa alhadeethi liyudilla AAan sabeeli Allahi bighayri AAilmin wayattakhithaha huzuwan ola-ika lahum AAathabun muheenun

Translation:

6. And among mankind is such a one who, without adequate knowledge, bargains for the frivolous hadeeth to lead people away from Allah’s path, and holds this (Qur’aan) in ridicule.3 For such a one awaits a disgraceful punishment.

Study Note:

3. This Verse, I am afraid, is an accurate prediction of what a majority of ‘Muslims’ are doing now, in my age (early part of 21st century).


 The above is an extract from Qur’aanic Studies Manzil V, which will soon, inshaAllah, be published on Amazon Kindle. Manzil IMabzil II,  Manzil III and Manzil IV of the series are already published.

Mohammad Shafi

Posted by: mjaga | June 18, 2012

Cloud Formation and Rainfall

Qur’aanic Verse 30:48:

30:48

Transliteration:

48. Allahu allathee yursilu alrriyaha fatutheeru sahaban fayabsutuhu fee alssama-i kayfa yashao wayajAAaluhu kisafan fatara alwadqa yakhruju min khilalihi fa-itha asaba bihi man yashao min AAibadihi itha hum yastabshiroona

Translation:

48. Allah is the One Who sends the winds. Then the interaction of the winds raises a cloud. Then He spreads the cloud across the sky as He pleases, and breaks it into fragments. Then you see the rain pouring down from within them.8 And when He makes the rain fall on whomsoever of His creatures He pleases, those creatures do then rejoice.

Study Note:

8. Go to the Geography Site to learn what modern science tells us about cloud formation and rainfall. Compare this knowledge that man has now gained to what the Qur’aan told us about it over 1400 years back. The Qur’aan had informed us that long ago how winds play a vital role in the whole process. The hot rising wind gets cooled as it rises and the water vapour therein gets condensed to form tiny water droplets, thus forming a cloud. It also gives us a hint on how the tiny droplets in the cloud tend to join one another within it so that the larger cloud gets fragmented into smaller ones. The heavier droplets in the clouds then drop down as rain due to the gravitational pull of the earth.


 The above is an extract from Qur’aanic Studies Manzil V, which will soon, inshaAllah, be published on Amazon Kindle. Manzil IMabzil II,  Manzil III and Manzil IV of the series are already published.

Mohammad Shafi

Posted by: mjaga | June 7, 2012

What is Ar-Riba?

Qur’aanic Verse 30:39:

30:39

Transliteration:

39. Wama ataytum min riban liyarbuwa fee amwali alnnasi fala yarboo AAinda Allahi wama ataytum min zakatin tureedoona wajha Allahi faola-ika humu almudAAifoona

Translation:

39. And what you give for profit so that the increase is at the cost of other people’s amwaal (property, dues) then it is not a lawful increase/profit with Allah.7 And what you give in charity seeking Allah’s pleasure – the givers of such charity are the ones who will get their return multiplied.

Study Note:

7. Herein lies the Qur’aanic definition of Ar-Riba that gets prohibited in Verse 2:275. For further details in this regard please read What is Ar-Riba, a Chapter extracted from the book ISLAM AND INTEREST. What Allah dislikes is a gain that is sought to be made by usurping the rightful amwaal (properties, earnings, dues) of others. Such gains are termed Ar-Riba wherever else the Qur’aan refers to these, as in Verses 2:275, 3:130, 4:161, etc.


 The above is an extract from Qur’aanic Studies Manzil V, which will soon, inshaAllah, be published on Amazon Kindle. Manzil IMabzil II,  Manzil III and Manzil IV of the series are already published.

Mohammad Shafi

Posted by: mjaga | May 31, 2012

What Nonsense!!

Qur’aanic Verse 30:25:

30:25

Transliteration:

25. Wamin ayatihi an taqooma alssamao waal-ardu bi-amrihi thumma itha daAAakum daAAwatan mina al-ardi itha antum takhrujoona

Translation:

25. And among His Signs is that the heavens and the earth stand (continue to exist as these do) by His Command.5 Then, as He gives out to you a single call, behold, you will all emerge from the earth.

Study Note:

5. We do now have an idea as to how Allah Almighty makes all the innumerable heavenly bodies – including the earth – keep to their orbits without bumping into one another. Every one of these bodies is in motion at a tremendous speed around one or the other central object. To give a simple example: a small stone tied to one end of a string being swirled around by a man holding the other end of the string. There are two forces acting on the stone: one, centripetal exerted by the man through the string and two, centrifugal exerted by the motion of stone. Through the interaction of these two forces the stone keeps to its circular motion. This simple example is given just for understanding the very complicated matter of innumerable heavenly bodies floating perfectly in their orbits. All the heavenly bodies exert their gravitational forces on one another besides! It is mind-blowing really how these myriad forces balance one another, with mathematical precision, to keep the innumerable bodies moving perfectly in their respective orbits. It is indeed a superhuman show that the Universe presents. Who else but a Being with superhuman Intelligence could have put up this gigantic show? But the atheists say it is all a matter of natural selection. All the heavenly bodies got together of their own accord as per this human (Darwin’s) Theory of Natural Selection, and, lo, we have this gigantic show to behold! What nonsense!!


 The above is an extract from Qur’aanic Studies Manzil V, which will soon, inshaAllah, be published on Amazon Kindle. Manzil IMabzil II,  Manzil III and Manzil IV of the series are already published.

Mohammad Shafi

Posted by: mjaga | May 26, 2012

Roman-Persian Wars

Qur’aanic Verses 30:2, 3:

30:2

30:3

Transliteration:

2. Ghulibati alrroomu

3. Fee adna al-ardi wahum min baAAdi ghalabihim sayaghliboona

Translation:

2. The Romans have been defeated.

3. In the nearby land. But they (the Romans), after this defeat of theirs, shall gain victory.2

Study Note:

2. The Persians had defeated the Romans in 613 A.D. And in 622 the Romans defeated the Peersians. That was within 10 years as the next Verse correctly predicted. These Verses were obviously revealed soon after the Romans’ defeat in 613 A.D. It was a veritable prophecy for the people at the time of this revelation. The believers’ sympathies then were with the Christian Romans, whereas the disbelievers sympathized with the then pagan Persians as Verse 4 below also indicates.


 The above is an extract from Qur’aanic Studies Manzil V, which will soon, inshaAllah, be published on Amazon Kindle. Manzil IMabzil II,  Manzil III and Manzil IV of the series are already published.

Mohammad Shafi

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